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ABC Registered User Advisory
St. John's wort Adulteration Bulletin Released by Botanical Adulterants Program
Bulletin summarizes data on adulteration of St. John's wort extracts with food dyes and/or extracts from other Hypericum species
AUSTIN, Texas (January 9, 2017) — The ABC-AHP-NCNPR Botanical Adulterants Program announces the publication of a new Botanical Adulterants Bulletin (BAB) on St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum).
Extracts of St. John’s wort are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of mild-to-moderate depression. According to data from the Nutrition Business Journal, sales of St. John’s wort dietary supplement products in the United States alone reached $ 57 million in 2015.
The unintentional collection of closely related Hypericum species instead of authentic St. John’s wort was described as early as the 1980s. The addition of food dyes to St. John’s wort extracts with the aim to fool standard laboratory tests (spectrophotometric determination of total hypericins) in order to comply with the labeled contents (usually 0.3%) has been documented only recently.
The new Bulletin, written by Allison McCutcheon, PhD, an herbal research expert in British Columbia, Canada, provides information on the growing range, production, and market importance of St. John’s wort and its extracts. It also lists the known adulterants, potential therapeutic and/or safety issues with the adulterating species, and analytical approaches to detect adulterants. Sixteen expert peer reviewers provided input on the St. John’s wort Bulletin.
The goal of the Botanical Adulterant Bulletins is to provide accounts of ongoing issues related to botanical identity and adulteration, thus allowing quality control personnel and lab technicians in the herbal medicine, botanical ingredient, dietary supplement, cosmetic, conventional food, and other industries where botanical ingredients are used to be informed on adulteration problems that are apparently widespread and/or that may imply safety concerns. As with all publications in the Program, the Bulletins are freely accessible to all American Botanical Council (ABC) members, registered users of the ABC website, and all members of the public on the Program’s website.
“Adulteration of St. John’s wort extracts with chemical dyes is no accident,” said Mark Blumenthal, founder and executive director of ABC and founder and director of the Botanical Adulterants Program. “Detection of these dyes by use of appropriate analytical methods in industry laboratories is an important step in preventing the presence of fraudulent and ineffective extracts from being sold to consumers. This is one of the key objectives of our Botanical Adulterants Program.”
Stefan Gafner, PhD, ABC chief science officer and Botanical Adulterants Program technical director, noted, “The sale of St. John’s wort extracts containing undeclared food dyes has been reported by a number of analysts from industry and contract analytical laboratories. This type of adulteration is quite easily detected with appropriate analytical methods.”
“The distinction of the various Hypericum species is challenging, and a good control over the supply chain is crucial,” Gafner added.“For the laboratory analysts, more data on the morphological, phytochemical, and genetic differences of closely related species would be beneficial to help to ensure presence of authentic St. John’s wort.”
The St. John’s wort Bulletin is the seventh publication in the series of Botanical Adulterants Bulletins. The Bulletins on arnica (Arnica montana) flower, bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) fruit extract, black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) root and rhizome, goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) root and rhizome, grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract, and skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) herb were published in 2016.
About the ABC-AHP-NCNPR Botanical Adulterants Program
The American Botanical Council (ABC)-American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (AHP)-National Center for Natural Products Research (NCNPR) Botanical Adulterants Program (BAP) is an international consortium of nonprofit professional organizations, analytical laboratories, research centers, industry trade associations, industry members, and other parties with interest in herbs and medicinal plants. The Program advises industry, researchers, health professionals, government agencies, the media, and the public about the various challenges related to adulterated botanical ingredients sold in commerce. To date, more than 180 US and international parties have financially supported or otherwise endorsed the Program.
The Botanical Adulterants Program plans to release additional Bulletins in the coming months. These include a Bulletin on grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi) seed extract, rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea) root and rhizome, and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) berry. In addition, the Program has just published an article in ABC’s peer-reviewed journal HerbalGram on adulteration of pomegranate (Punica granatum), specifically the undeclared addition of synthetic ellagic acid.
To date, the ABC-AHP-NCNPR Botanical Adulterants Program has published six extensively peer-reviewed articles on the history of adulteration, the adulteration of the herbs black cohosh and skullcap, adulteration of bilberry fruit extract, the history of ginseng (Panax spp.) taxonomy, nomenclature, and trade as basis for understanding ginseng adulteration, and the sale of synthetic antimicrobial compounds labeled to contain so-called “grapefruit seed extract.” In addition, the Program has published three Laboratory Guidance Documents reviewing and evaluating analytical methods to authenticate and detect adulteration of bilberry extract, black cohosh, and skullcap. The Program also publishes a quarterly e-newsletter, the Botanical Adulterants Monitor, that highlights new scientific publications related to botanical authenticity and analysis to detect possible adulteration, recent regulatory actions, and Program news. All of the Program’s publications are freely available on the Program’s website.